Crude oil industry, as a part of the power sector of economy, is the object of intense interest from the side of the state as well as from the side of private capital. At present time characterized by high energy requirements and their limited sources, the control of power sector is a strategic interest of every state. The main factors, that influence the development in this resort, are the attempt to provide enough sources of energy carriers from more sources, so that the risk of dependency on one supplier of energetic raw materials is minimized.
Especially Nafta, a.s., a Transpetrol, a.s. and Slovnaft, a.s.companies represent crude oil industry including exploitation, transportation and proceeding of crude oil in the territory of the Slovak Republic. The volume of the crude oil in the territory of Slovakia is marginal with respect to the needs of the economy, so the main source of crude oil is mostly from the Russian Federation.
Transpetrol, a.s. is the owner and operator of the oil pipeline system in the territory of the Slovak Republic. It is historically connected with the construction of the Druzhba transit crude oil pipeline, its southern branch, which enters the Slovak territory from the former Soviet Union, through Belarus and the Ukraine to former Czechoslovakia and its second section headed to Hungary. The first crude oil was transported to the refinery Slovnaft in Bratislava by the Druzhba pipeline in February 1962. The Druzhba pipeline transports crude oil to refineries in the Czech Republic, especially in Litvínov and Pardubice. Its northern branch heads from the former Soviet Union to Poland.
In the territory of Slovakia the Druzhba oil pipeline was constructed to transport oil in the volume of 20 million metric tons per year. About 11 million metric tons per year were transported annually in the last three years.
The pipeline Adria, which was built in 1980, starts on the coast of the Adriatic Sea, continues through Croatia and Hungary, subsequently it links to the Druzhba oil pipeline. This pipeline enables transportation from Omišalj to Šahy in the territory of Slovakia after approximately 600 km. Its operation created important preconditions for diversification of crude oil supplying and other possibilities for entering new crude oil markets.
A very important part of the crude oil industry in the Slovak Republic is Slovnaft, a.s. in Bratislava whose primary activity is based on oil proceeding. At the same time it dedicates to the storage, distribution of oil products and wholesale trade. Retail trade is realized via the biggest network of petrol station in the territory of Slovakia.
Through this territory, Transpetrol, a.s. closely cooperates with partner transportation companies, i.e. Transneft and Ukrtransnafta in handing over the crude oil from the Russian federation, MERO ČR in transportation of crude oil to the Czech Republic and MOL in transportation of crude oil to Hungary, or more precisely from Hungary to Slovakia.